UPDATE1:- It seems that The Queen may “suggest” to Gordon Brown, some remedies, to his Parliament’s predicament. I can’t guess what those might be, but we live in hope.
Libertarians disagree in friendly ways all the time about the correct constitutional structure of a limited or minimal state.
Presently, here, we have what is increasingly inaccurately called a “Constitutional Monarchy”. I think most British libertarians are prepared to live with this arrangement, if it would merely deliver its supposed advantages. I have just been to The Last Ditch where I found an admirable call for The Queen to do what she is entitled under our constitution to do:
dissolve this Parliament, and call a General Election.
This particular Parliament, unprecented in nearly 400 years, has lost such meagre respect as it still retained after, among other sins, handing, entirely unauthorised and incidentally to the extreme detriment of The Queen’s own position as Head of State of the United Kingdom, nearly all its powers to a junta of unelected foreign potentates with which it has wished to make friends, for what are merely personal pecuniary reasons.
We here may quibble internally about whether the UK ought still to exist – I know that Sean Gabb and I would not lose any sleep if it broke up tomorrow. But most libertarians would be on the same side about the modern inability of the people of these Islands – however they might wish to describe themselves – to arrive at their exiercise of their own sovereignty, by themselves.
(I have just hit “publish” by mistake, but have not finished….)
Mr Eugenides thinks (or perhaps his post implies that) the problem might be soluble merely by bringing about the resignation of the Speaker and his replacement by someone who believes in the idea of parliamentary authority based on the inherent morality of the individuals who (ought to be) in that institution. We here do not agree. The rot has set in too far, and short of a Revolution, which might be destructive and would call down the ire of the present administration which is just _aching_ to invoke the CCA, the best solution is for The Queen to actually exercise the real powers that she has, designed for just this eventuality.
Afetr all, has not this government truly f*****d up? Has it not f****d up the Banking system (on purpose) so as to faux-nationalise it, and decide who gets money and who does not? Has it not f****d up British agricultural and fishery production, so as to hand over at least partial control of our food supply to others as a way of initiating rationing? Has it not f****d up “public education”, so as to deliberately create an uncurious race of compliant helots? Has it not f****d up the Armed Services, so as to eliminate – by calumny, depression and indignation – from their ranks those who would not cheerfully agree to orders to fire upon their own people?
That lot is enough, for a start. Time the buggers went. I doubt very much that The Queen reads this blog, but perhaps someone who knows someone who speaks with her, does.
Please, Ma’am, just do what you were brought up to know how and when to be able to do.
Please also do it, sort of now. it can be combined with the trouser-ripping that’s already scheduled for 4th June. It’s also “Founders day” – David Cameron and Charles Moore will be pleased.
Libertarians disagree on the need for a state full stop…
I think we should have a revolution. Next tuesday, assemble Trafalgar Square 8am, bring sandwiches and a kagool as it may be a long day.
“The need for a state”? If you don’t have a state, a new one will arise. You need a state to stop another one forming. The trick is to so hobble the one you have that it cannot do any harm. Representatives should be exhorbitantly paid, with free rein to claim what they like on expenses, and supplied with beer, cocaine and dancing girls. This should ensure that the dangerous people, who tend to be puritans who want to “get something done” will not participate. The ideal government does nothing at all. The last thing we should be doing is complaining that MPs are wasters. We want wasters. It’s the organised efficient motivated ones who do all the harm.
The other thing we need to do is abolish the legislative power. By taking away the right to make laws from parliament, it would become fairly harmless. Presuming an occasional new law may be useful (though I personally doubt this) we could have an internet message board thng on which people could suggest new laws. If any law could get, say, ten million votes on this website, there would then be a plebiscite.
Polling stations would be in awkward places, perhaps at the top of steep hills far from public transport. Passage of the new law would require a yes vote from 80% of the electorate- not of those who vote, but of those eligible to vote. Each law would then have a 2 year cooling off period, and require a second vote with the same majority, in order to be enacted. No two laws could be voted for on the same day, to prevent piggybacking onto something popular (like a smoking ban on the same ballot paper as a law against murder).
There. We don’t need a legislature. That’s one problem solved. Come back tomorrow for another “Top Tip”!
Gosh that was quick, Ian. Would you like to be not the prime minister?
I would also like to appeal to the Queen to dissolve parliament. She should also consider sending some of our MPs’ to the tower for treason. But, if I can only have one wish, let it be the first.
I was trying to get mine in before the next chapter of Tony’s erotic conspiracy novel.
Tony posts comments now under a variety of names, Ian, of which via their IP addresses you will be aware via elementary sorting proceedures, and I don’t even need to involve GCHQ with such matters. But Tony, when you read this, please would you give us all here your opinion on what The Queen ought to do now?
Good post. To be clear, I don’t believe that removing Michael Martin would solve the problem, but it would at least be a start. (For example, Jackie Ashley in the Guardian today reports that, even now, an attempt to draw some of the poison by putting all the expenses claims into the public domain immediately is being blocked by the Speaker’s office.)
A competent Speaker is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the cleanup of this devalued institution.
Stella Rimington recently told us that Britain is as of right now a Police State. She is NOT referring to Her Majesty’s Sovereignty in Parliament.
She is referring to a thing calling itself “ACPO”…
“One Ring to Bind Them All”
How a private company limited by guarantee can possibly get a .POLICE.UK URL is beyond me.
The easiest way to remedy the situation us for Her Majesty’s Government to issue instructions that:
EVERY BRITISH CITIZEN IN THE UNITED KINGDOM SHALL HAVE FULL MEMBERSHIP RIGHTS IN — AND FULL VOTING POWERS IN THE ELECTION OF A NEW BOARD OF DIRECTORS, as described herein, as of right now:
Those wishimg to swear a personal oath of allegiance to the Crown should be free — as individuals acting with full, informed consent — to do so.
Most of our problems will then disappear, along with several politicians and several ACPO members…
It’s as easy as that…
The “Hard Way” is for the RAF AND GCHQ to take out ACPO’s HQ and Communications; while SAS & SBS Special Forces round up all Members of ACPO as of:
18 May 2009
Holding them for treasonable felony and murder and Usurpation of Crown Prerogatives.
(WARNING: ACPO have Contingency planning…)
“To win a hundred battles is not the ponnacle of skill…
To win _without fighting_ is the pinnacle of skill.”
Old Sun Tzu doesn’t miss a trick…
Neither do the folk at Westernesse…
Or the Puzzle Palace: (US/UK Intelligence Sharing Agreement)
Have a fine day! Smiles…
Anduríl (Tony Hollick)
This day, if necessary, we FIGHT!!!
AGORA6.TXT: Sixth Revision: Discussion Document Revised on 17 May 
——————- * * * * * —————
FROM “ACPO” POLICE STATE TO DEMOCRATIC AGORISM
——————- * * * * * —————
A Liberal Democratic Representative Open Society
In Classical Greece, the Agora was the public place where free
citizens met spontaneously to transact public business, to trade, and to
exchange news, views and information. Increasingly, our world is becoming
an Agora (or a series of interrelated Agoras across different
cross-sections of society)).
Liberals, individualists, democratic socialists, social democrats,
free-marketeers, classical liberals, conservatives, anarchists and others
of no party may all find some merit in these ideas. They outline entirely
feasible arrangements for an Open Society affording variety and freedom of
choice, as well as more nearly spontaneous orders in political services.
These would be social, but not statist. Democratic Agorism can operate in
whole or in part, and in any country.
Democratic Agorism is very practical (and eminently practicable). All
elements of each of the proposals are presently in use somewhere, and can
therefore be studied, evaluated, compared, criticised and discussed. The
purpose of Democratic Agorism is to make available the best opportunities
for citizens qua electors with differing preferences to choose, support
and benefit from representation and programmes which most nearly fulfil
their requirements and wishes. As well, people will enjoy increased
freedom to make their own arrangements for a better life with the funds
which are made available.
(These proposals should — I hope! — appeal to everyone, except
perhaps for those seeking power over other people, or those wanting a
highly-stratified ‘verticalist’ society where a few are rich beyond dreams of
avarice, whilst the many suffer from poverty and the denial of access to
American writer Jerry Pournelle in his essay ‘The World As It
Could Be Made’, in Dr. Robert Prehoda’s “Your Next Fifty Years” ,
has pointed out that some people deliberately opt for poverty (for other
people), because they dislike seeing other people living as free,
independent, self-confident individuals).
THE PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED
How can we provide maximal individual freedom (both positive _and_
negative: freedom-to-act as well as freedom-from-coercion) to each and
every individual, so that we may live our lives more nearly as we wish?
And how do we enable ourselves to enjoy access to the widest range of
How can we ensure that — in the rapidly-transforming world economy —
people can choose (and look forward to) a future human and economic
environment which is the best we can achieve?
And how can we make sure that everyone has a real incentive to choose
the best systems providing opportunities for maximal economic growth?
Insofar as economic systems are ‘Wertfrei’ (value-free) abstract games, as
the economists tell us, people have the right to choose the most
favourable ‘game’, and to receive full payment for their consent to the
game’s taking place. Too often, some neoconservatives and others take the
_particular_ game (and its income and property distributions) for
granted, as a — somehow — given ‘background’. Not so. As Robert Nozick
points out, the better-off tend to be the descendants of the beneficiaries
of past injustices, while the less-well-off tend to be the descendants of
their predecessors’ victims. Justly-due restitution is not
‘confiscation’, nor is it ‘redistribution’ either.
The monopoly supply of “public” services by the State, which (in
democratic theory and principle at least) we as the electorate “hire” to
improve society by solving various problems for us — and the consequent
disputes over which services are to be supplied, by whom, under whose
control, by which criteria, how and in what quantity, and at what cost —
One purpose of these proposals is to outline the possibilities and
advantages of simultaneously-available, pluralistic, more nearly
market-like arrangements, which will expand and enhance the range and
quality of social services. And this should happen in ways which are
consistent with the best features of representative democracy and the
better, more responsive forms of non-profit voluntary groups and
for-profit commercial enterprises. The implementation of these systems
can be realised gradually, and will be easier for people to put into
practice, and adjust to, than many proposed transitions to more fully free
Democratic Agorism owes much of its inspiration to the late Agorist
theoretician Robert LeFevre and to the late Karl Popper. To Robert
LeFevre it owes the insight that there is no basis for property rights
which does not entail the possible initiation of aggression to assert
those rights — which aggression is morally forbidden to consistent
individualist anarchists, or indeed anyone morally or practically opposed
to the initiating of aggression.
I see no viable alternative to Milton Friedman’s view, expressed in
“Capitalism and Freedom”: “Just what constitutes property and what rights
the ownership of property confers are complex social creations rather than
To Karl Popper is owed his analysis of the achievement of
intellectual, moral and practical advance by means of the Open Society of
free and democratic institutions. ‘Democracy’ to Popper means the ability
to change the governing order without violence; and — to this end —
for people to be free to hypothesize, research, discuss and advance
proposals for improving the ways people live.
Any free society must ultimately depend on the broad assent of its
citizens, which can only be practically demonstrated by democratic
arrangememts. Even in an anarchy, people might prefer to have a vote on
the system they live within…
Democratic Agorism proposes a fundamental transformation of the nature
of the “ACPO” State, into a form of fully and generally publicly-owned
Property Management Company, acceptable to the European Union.
The “ACPO to Agorism” process is quite painless.
The State will own the underlying Strata Title of its present territory.
The citizens will own the State itself in equal shares.
They elect a Board of Directors to manage the Company:
both Counyu and National.
Taxes become User Fees; Laws become Terms and Conditions of Use.
Revenues from User Fees after “operating expenses” will be returned
to the citizen-owners in equal dividend payments.
This process effectely “marketizes” the State.
The essential elements of Democratic Agorism are modular and synergistic:
[A] A contractually-based day-by-day electoral system – Vectored Politics
[B] Full-Liability Personal Indemnity Insurance, enabling full restitution.
[C] Personal Radio Alarms: for event-driven and customer-driven policing
[D] A Restitutive Legal System, with online ‘courts’ and arbitration.
[E] Good Basic Income Provision for all — independent incomes for all.
[F] Networked information services and library facilities
[G] National Health Insurance chargecard and online diagnostic facilities
[H] Online education and skills-development facilities
[I] Tradenet buy/sell/swap/finance/work transaction services
[J] Packaged ‘political’ services provided via elected representatives
It has been estimated (David Friedman’s Law, in his ‘The Machinery of
Freedom’, 2nd edition) that state services typically produce about one half
the value to consumers of voluntary (non-profit or for-profit) provision, at
up to twice the cost. He also espouses Robert LeFevre’s Agorist ideas:
“My own preference is for the sort of economic institutions which
have been named, I think by Robert LeFevre, agoric. Under agoric
institutions almost everyone is self-employed. Instead of corporations,
there are large groups of entrepreneurs related by trade, not by
authority. Each sells, not his time, but what his time produces. As a
freelance writer (one of my occupations), I am part of an agoric economic
order.” [1st ed. p. 199,  and ].
A two- to four-fold misallocation rate may be an over-estimate;
still, the costs of misallocated resources, conflict, inflation, excessive
regulation, waste, bureaucracy, maltreatment and lost opportunities are
not always amenable to precise estimation, but they have certainly lowered
living standards for most people. The problem to be solved is that of
making funds available for different purposes for people to make good use
of, by their own lights, with the fullest possible informed consent of
those participating in generating the funds..
CHOOSING REPRESENTATION: BOLD STROKES AND INCREMENTAL CHANGES
Rather than having periodic general elections, with very limited
choice as to candidates, each elector is at any time free to choose any
person of his or her preference (who must of course be willing so to act),
to be his or her elected representative, always on a revokeable basis.
Each day is a possible ‘Election Day’ for each elector and each
Representatives can then delegate their work-load as they see fit, to
those they have confidence in. In this age of easy communications, there
need be no restriction on the total number of elected representatives
meeting in Assembly by means of electronic and tele- conferencing. The
emphasis shifts from ‘winners and losers’ to ‘market shares.’
The relationship between elector and representative is a standard
civil-law contractual one (offer -> acceptance -> performance (->
payment)). Representatives may form mutual-interest groups, which might
in some respects approximate the present political coalitions. New
patterns of support will emerge. They will not be beholden to political
parties. Elections will cease to be periodic all-or-nothing affairs, and
will reflect and accommodate gradual shifts in opinion and support, as
electors change and develop their preferences between representatives –
and their policies – over time.
(A variant of modern public-key/private-key security cryptosystems
can easily be arranged, to ensure a secret ballot for those preferring
such an arrangement. It should be pointed out that most of the present
‘secret-ballot’ electoral systems are only as ‘secret’ as the authorities
running them want them to be).
The legislative functions of the elected assembly will be carried out
by means of the representatives voting on measures, each casting that
number of votes corresponding to the sum of contracting electors they
represent at the time of the vote. Public laws would require the assent
of a real majority — preferably at least 50% of the electorate’s votes
(after subtracting ‘votes-against’ from ‘votes-for’). I expect this to
result in many fewer — and clearer — statute laws.
It should be worthwhile to introduce ‘sunset’ review provisions for
existing legislation, (as distinct from the body of civil law), so that
pre-existing legislation (much of which is dated, inappropriate, corrupt
in origin, harmful or poorly-thought-out) will be subject to review and
re-enactment or repeal.
A Written Constitution, setting out the basic principles of universal
human rights — to facilitate formal and legal enforceability of those
rights by means of accessible _trial by jury_ — is both educational and
advantageous for liberty, with entrenching clauses barring attacks on key
individual rights and liberties, and forbidding cruel or unusual
punishments, and so on. Every country in the world _nominally_
subscribes to these principles already, in the 1947 Universal Declaration
of Human Rights:
http://www.hri.org/docs/UDHR48.html (UDHR Attached)
(The drafting of this document _preceded_ its adoption by the UN,
and acceptance of the UDHR does not imply endorsement of the UN variant).
It is usually easier to convince people (and governments) that they
should _respect_ what they’ve already _actually assented to_.
Representatives may go on to appoint an Executive to deal with
defence matters, external affairs and so on. There may also be a second
(non-spending) oversight and revision chamber, or Senate, with
representatives especially chosen for their wisdom, knowledge, character,
standing and so on – as electors and their representatives may wish.
For the honest and ethical political representatives, there are many
advantages to be had from Democratic Agorism, and few disadvantages. Each
can work to build up their electoral constituency (‘market share’), and to
offer the most attractive and worthwhile programmes, to ensure ongoing
support and revenue. Each can look forward to promoting their preferred
objectives. Each can have some security from the domination of party,
leader or faction. Every shade of opinion can be proportionally
For the elector, the available opportunities will be very considerably
improved over the present unresponsive legislatures and government
monopolies. There will be a whole new series of market-places, offering
packaged choices of services with strong incentives to be efficient and
attractive. Programmes compete for electoral support on a basis which
facilitated comparison for quality and value over time. The existence of
a variety of simultaneously available alternatives will considerably
enhance individual freedoms and reduce social conflicts arising from
It should be noted that Democratic Agorism can be built up gradually
(or even covertly, or clandestinely) in non-democratic societies, so as to
supplant and replace undemocratic systems by more representative – hence
more legitimate – fully democratic ones.
And Democratic Agorism provides very useful ‘benchmarks’ against which
any existing social arrangements and situations may be appraised. “What
would be happening in this situation within the parameters of Democratic
INSURING JUSTICE: CRIME PREVENTION, COMPENSATION AND RESTITUTION
The maintenance and furtherance of individual liberties, and the
prevention of criminal acts (violence, coercion, malicious damage and the
deliberate infliction of harm), and provision of full compensation or
restitution for anyone who has suffered loss or injury, are the moral and
logical functions of a rational and humane justice system which is founded
on principles of delegated self-defence and equality of protection within
the Rule of Law.
Most people who have suffered from crime would rather receive full and
prompt compensation, than only the remote and uncertain possibility that
the actual malefactor might be caught and perhaps punished. In the past,
the problem has been that offenders have been unable to compensate their
victims adequately. It is time to return the protection of the law from
the abstraction of “state” to the reality of persons.
Consequently, if each person and association is required to hold
public liability insurance (reinsured for complete reliability), full
compensation could always be made available to recompense anyone who has
suffered loss or who has been harmed. An arrangement similar to the Motor
Agents Bureau Agreement in the UK would also operate, to ensure
compensation from a ‘pooled’ fund under all circumstances (i.e. if the
offender cannot be immediately found).
This insurance would be very inexpensive for people who do not harm
(Further, if each citizen is offered and provided with a miniaturized
_user-activated_ radio emergency ‘panic’ search-and-rescue alarm,
preset to transmit a uniquely-coded personalized alarm signal which
could be triangulated for exact source position location and
identification, then rapid-response medical, legal, police and rescue
services could be made immediately available on demand. This would
also help greatly to deter malefactors, improve peoples’ sense of
safety, reduce the costs of crime, and assist the prompt arrest of the
The basic principles and procedures of English Common Law _can_
(among other systems of law) provide a basis for sensible adjudication
services, provided that there are much better administrative arrangements
to assure the ready availability of arbitration in civil courts at _no
cost_ to the participants.
However, as Hayek and others have pointed out, the English Common
Law needs extensive revision to correct the unfortunate results of judges
over the centuries having been drawn from a social class made up of
creditors rather than debtors, landlords rather than tenants, masters
rather than servants, vendors rather than customers. It might be added,
that there has been a warping of the law caused by the ascendancy in the
courts of those with deep pockets and the option of patience resulting in
case-by-case decisions favouring them.
In a restitutive paradigm, the costs of crime would be more accurately
appraised and obvious; insurers and others would have incentives to
restrain the incidence of – and thus reduce the costs of – infractions.
In all but the most violent and destructive cases, ‘House Arrest’ should
provide sufficient ultimate ‘damage limitation.’
Personal security and property protection costs, including national
defence provision, can be funded by a ‘ring-fenced’ pro-rata tax on all
personal property and wealth owned, so that protection can be more nearly
fairly priced according to the worth of the holdings which are being
protected. In the UK this might approximate 1% of the value of all
property holdings per annum. Policing services must be pluralistic —
those performing policing functions should have no special privileges,
and monopolies in this area are unacceptable.
PLURAL SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES
Modern governments take up to 50% of GDP in costs and taxes. These
government revenues will become “operating revenue” to be disbursed
according to the preferences of the electorate, as expressed in the
“board decisions” of their chosen representarives.
This expenditure will include a Guaranteed Basic Income to support
the economic and social requirements of those with incomes below a
decent threshhold which enables a reasonable degree of positive as well as
Representatives will receive voting powers over funds in direct proportion
to the numbers of electors supporting them, enabling them to finance the
programmes they undertake to provide for their electors and others.
Each elector will likely choose the representative whose range of
programmes and legislative stance best meets their preferences for
representation, and for possible provision of personal social services
(health, education, additional income etc.: the present “public”
services). To ease the transition, and to allow reconsideration and
amendment as and if problems are found, the funds may be transferred from
government to electors gradually, over – say – a three-year period.
Representatives may offer various mixes of “local” and “national”
services. Some representatives will offer services directed more to
helping the disadvantaged, while others would be directed more towards
enhancing the life-chances of the elector.
In the UK at present (2008), under these arrangements, around ten
thousand UK pounds per elector per annum is available from an equal-shares
reapportionment of tax revenues, and their return to those electors
who are below a qualifying income, with another two thousand pounds available
for each child. This should be more than sufficient to cover the great majority
of electors’ situations. It would provide a family income of twenty-four thousand UK
pounds per annum for a mother, father and two children, before any
additional income is earned. This amount should also constitute the
Personal Income Tax Allowance.
A flat-rate yearly risk-sharing national medical-expenses insurance
premium of around four hundred UK pounds should be sufficient to cover all
medical expenses (including disability and geriatric care expenses), by
funding a risk-sharing Universal Health Insurance chargecard for each
citizen, which is used to settle voluntary-sector bona fide treatment
charges for bona fide illnesses (thus enabling funds to ‘follow the
patient’). De-cartelized medicine is much less costly.
Evidence-based medicine will grearly reduce costs.
A NETWORKING SOCIETY
Each elector’s household will be provided with an easy-to-use on-line
computer with keyboard or touch-screen or voice input – a terminal connecting to their TV set (or as they wish), to enable access to a wide variety of services and facilities.
Network connections will be via the public telephone system (PSTN) at no
charge, or via a national hard-wired or fibre-optical data highway, with
data-radio facilities provided where there is no existing wired
connection. (Handicapped people unable to use the equipment properly can
of course be helped to do so, by their friends and relatives,
representatives, healthcare professionals and volunteers, neighbours and
others). Voice input is now readily available for those preferring it.
Network services will include:- electronic mail; news; selecting and
appointing democratic representatives; conflict investigation, resolution
and legal ajudication services and arbitration facilities; travel
facilities; medical diagnosis and treatment advice ladders and outcome information services;educational facilities; employment and trading opportunities; consumer information and advice; housing opportunities; library and information resources; social events and community facilities; financial services; and many other resources.
EMERGENCY MEDICAL, POLICE, FIRE & RESCUE SERVICES
It is now technically and economically possible to provide each and
every citizen with a uniquely coded personal miniature radio ‘panic’
alarm. When activated _by the citizen_ in an emergency situation, the
unit transmits a coded signal which identifies the citizen and their
location, and summons immediate assistance to those GPS coordinates. This
can be medical, policing, fire brigade or other disaster assistance. The
signal can be instantly triangulated to pinpoint its source, and Global
Positioning Coordinates provided, so that emergency rescue service
can be provided by the fastest available route. This would substantially
reduce the incidence of crime, and reduce its cost to individuals.
The sought-for advantages of the systems proposed here include:
[ 1] Improved responsiveness & responsibility of those elected or appointed
[ 2] Reduced deficit spending, less inflationary money-printing & borrowing
[ 3] Funds go to those programmes which those paying actually approve of
[ 4] Reduced forward commitment of future revenue resources
[ 5] Channelling of chosen kinds of help to those chosen to be helped
[ 6] Social acquisitions by persons and groups rather than nationalisation
[ 7] More variety, better value-for-money, less “red-tape”, wasted resources
[ 8] New employment opportunities and service industries
[ 9] Better allocations as between local and national services
 Incremental change rather than “U-turns”, with better adaptation
 More nearly market-like, with multiple simultaneous choices
 Smaller, less monolithic administrative bureaucracies
 Better opportunities for involvement for those wanting to participate
 Less bitter rivalry when all “sides” can win; not a zero-sum situation
 Maybe a political currency for spending in the political marketplace
 Resolution of Kenneth Arrow’s voting Impossibility Theorem
 Resolution of Condorcet’s voting Paradox
 Encouragement of individualism & responsible voluntaryist co-operation
 Encouragement of new thinking in policy formulation and presentation.
From longer-term free-society perspectives, these ideas offer good
prospects for building up a broad range of free and independent groups and
social institutions providing personal and welfare services, each largely
funded by its own supporters. Representatives would progress by
fulfilling their electors’ requirements. The struggle for political
advantage or domination would be replaced by more constructive activity
more nearly voluntarily-based. Rather than the usual futile or
domineering zero-sum and negative-sum political struggles, just about
everyone could win.
There would be more participation in worthwhile ongoing activities,
and better understanding of the virtues and advantages of a more fully
free society. Representatives would be more accountable, and electors
would have incentives to be responsible. The redistributive elements of
revenue-sharing and apportionment would become more obvious and more
nearly subject to rational and humane considerations. Poorer people
frequently bear a disproportionate burden of ‘social costs.’
( This presentation is an outline of some ideas for a more fully free
liberal and democratic Republic — a free society; it may also help provide
a better understanding of freely-chosen plural social welfare provision.
Written comment is always welcome. -TH Bristol, England, 10 June  ).
All Best Wishes
Tony Hollick, LightSmith
http://www.STARGATE.uk.net (Agora Home Page, Rainbow Bridge Foundation)
http://www.aclu.org (American Civil Liberties Union)
http://www.amnesty.org (Amnesty International)
——————- * * * * * —————
! http://stargate.uk.net/agora/ * Anduril@STARGATE.uk.net |
– ————————–* * * *————————– –
| Rainbow Bridge Foundation * * Centre for Liberal Studies |
– ————————–* * * *————————– –
| 4 Grayling House, Canford Rd: * Bristol BS9 3NU Tel: 9504914 |
“These are the Warriors who have the power to create Paradise.”
MOTTO, FIRST EARTH BATTALION FOUNDATION
——————- * * * * * —————
——————- * * * * * —————
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
——————- * * * * * —————
NEW YORK 10 December 1948
G.A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71 (1948).
On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted
and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of
which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the
Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the
Declaration and “to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and
expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions,
without distinction based on the political status of countries or
Final Authorized Text
——————- * * * * * —————
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
——————- * * * * * —————
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has beep proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights
should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims
THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth
in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as
race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other
status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis
of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the
country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be
independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other
limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the
slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person
before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any
discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled
to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of
this Declaration and against any incitement to such
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent
national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights
granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public
hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the
determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal
charge against him.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be
presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a
public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary
for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account
of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal
offence, under national or international law, at the time when
it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than
the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his
privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon
his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the
protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence
within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his
own, and to return to his country.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other
countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions
genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts
contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor
denied the right to change his nationality.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to
race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to
found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to
marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent
of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society
and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in
association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and
religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or
belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others
and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in
teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression;
this right includes freedom to hold opinions without
interference and to seek, receive and impart information and
ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of
his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority
of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and
genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal
suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social
security and is entitled to realization, through national
effort and international co-operation and in accordance with
the organization and resources of each State, of the economic,
social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and
the free development of his personality.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of
employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to
protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to
equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable
remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence
worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by
other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for
the protection of his interests.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable
limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for
the health and well-being of himself and of his family,
including food, clothing, housing and medical care and
necessary social services, and the right to security in the
event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age
or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and
assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock,
shall enjoy the same social protection.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be
free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.
Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and
professional education shall be made generally available and
higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the
basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the
human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding,
tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious
groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations
for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education
that shall be given to their children.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the
cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share
in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and
material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or
artistic production of which he is the author.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in
which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can
be fully realized.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the
free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall
be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law
solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect
for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just
requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare
in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised
contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for
any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity
or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the
rights and freedoms set forth herein.
——————- * * * * * —————
From the HR-Net Group / Hellenic Resources Institute, Inc.
Wednesday, 27 September 
Original Source: gopher://gopher.undp.org:70/00/unearth/rights
This outfit has hijacked all the Police Forces and Powers in the United Kingdom.